【提分干货】被动语态:难点突破,一举搞定!

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     英语动词有两种语态.,主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。如:

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They will build a new bridge over the river. (主动)

A new bridge will be built over the river. (被动)

     汉语中常用“被”、“给”、“由”、“受”等词用来表示被动,而英语用:

     助动词be + 及物动词的过去分词构成。







01被动语态的时态构成

一般现在时:am / is / are + done

一般过去时:was / were + done

一般将来时:shall / will + be done

一般过去将来时:should / would + be done

现在进行时:am / is / are + being + done

过去进行时:was / were + being + done

现在完成时:have / has + been + done

过去完成时:had + been + done

将来完成时:shall / will + have been + done

过去将来完成时:should / would + have been + done

[注]被动语态没有将来进行时和过去将来进行时。




02常见的八种时态中的被动语态

1. 一般现在时:

People grow rice in the south of the country.

Rice is grown in the south of the country.

2. 一般过去时:

They agreed on the building of a new car factory last month.

The building of a new car factory was agreed on last month.

3. 一般将来时:

They will send cars abroad by sea.

Cars will be sent abroad by sea.

4. 过去将来时:

The manager said they would complete the project by the end of the year.

The manager said the project would be completed by the end of the year.

5. 现在进行时:

The radio is broadcasting English lessons.

English lessons are being broadcasted on the radio.

6. 过去进行时:

The workers were mending the road.

The road was being mended.

7. 现在完成时:

Someone has told me the sports meeting might be put off.

I have been told the sports meeting might be put off.

8. 过去完成时:

When I got to the theatre, I found they had already sold out the tickets.

When I got to the theatre, I found the tickets had already been sold out.




03含有情态动词的被动语态




含有情态动词的被动语态是由“情态动词+ be+ 及物动词的过去分词”构成。

You must hand in your compositions after class.

Your compositions must be handed in after class.




04被动语态的使用




1.当不知道或没有必要指出动作的执行者时,常用被动语态,这时往往不用by 短语。

“Mr. White, the cup was broken after class. ”

2.突出或强调动作的承受者,如果需要说出动作的执行者,用by 短语。

These records were made by John Denver.

The cup was broken by Paul.

3.当汉语句子的主语既不是动作的执行者,也不是动作的承受者时,这时常用in + 名词作状语,而代替 by 短语。

These cars were made in China.




05语态转换时所注意的问题




1. 把主动语态变为被动语态时,其谓语动词的时态要与原句时态保持一致,其谓语动词的数要与新主语保持一致。

❀We have bought a new computer.

❀A new computer has been bought.

2. 含有双宾语的主动句变被动句时,可分别将其中的一个宾语变为主语,另一个不动,一般变间接宾语为主语时比较多。

❀My uncle gave me a present on my birthday.

❀I was given a present on my birthday.

A present was given to me yesterday.

3.带复合宾语(宾语+ 宾补)的动词改为被动语态时,一般把主动结构中的宾语改为主语,而宾语补足语保留在谓语动词后面。如:

❀We always keep the classroom clean.

❀The classroom is always kept clean.

4.当主动句的主语是nobody, no one等含有否定意义的不定代词时,被动句中将其变为anybody, 作by的宾语,并将谓语动词变为否定的被动语态。如:

❀Nobody can answer this question.

❀The question can not be answered by anybody.








例题:

—Sandy was made   by some boys.   

— Oh, sorry to hear that. 

A. cry

B. to cry  

C. cried

D. to crying 

答案:B






END




编 后 语 
被动语态强调“宾”,用 be加上“过去分”
“be”要随着主语变,人称时态要弄准
“行为对象”作主语,逻辑主语“by”来引
原句若是双宾语,一变“主”来一保“宾”
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